This tutorial is for anybody who wishes to use the powerful facilities that SWI-Prolog provides for generating project documentation. The student is expected to know Prolog in general and the SWI-Prolog dialect in specific to a self-assessed level of at least advanced beginner. The student should also be sufficiently motivated to document code that learning a comprehensive and sometimes complicated documentation system is not a problem.
Any source code in any language, when needing to be maintained for an extended time or when being worked upon by multiple coders, requires good documentation. This documentation, to be complete must take three forms: tutorial, overview or guide, and reference. It is this third kind of documentation that PlDoc is chiefly designed for, although it can assist in the first two as well.
Through the use of so-called structured comments, PlDoc, like JavaDoc, Doxygen, EDoc and other such source code documentation facilities, generates high quality documentation in LaTeX format. PlDoc also provides a web server facility which can be used by the developer to browse documentation in situ; this is a valuable tool for library and package documentation. Finally PlDoc also provides a standalone web server facility for putting documentation into the public eye.
PlDoc is designed to be simple to start using and to be rewarding to the developers who use it (individual or group) from the start. While the whole package put together can seem overwhelming, the individual pieces are simple and can be used quickly with little fuss or bother.
To go through this tutorial you will require the following:
To get the most out of the tutorial you will need to:
Note that the samples are in subdirectories of the project root named according
to the headings of the tutorial. The names will be all in lower case and will
have whitespace replaced with underscores. Thus, for example, if there were
sample files for this section, they would be found in the
introduction/requirements subdirectory. The final version of the samples is
contained in the
src directory for those eager to see the end instead of
paying attention to the journey.
This tutorial is Copyright (c) 2012 Michael T. Richter. It comes without any warranty of any kind, including, but not limited to, that of accuracy, of utility, or even of good taste to the extent permitted by applicable law. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the Do What The Fuck You Want To Public License, Version 2.
All of the code in this tutorial stems from section 2.8 of the Creating Web Applications in SWI-Prolog tutorial by Anne Ogborn. The files have been renamed and commensurate changes have been made in the source. No other changes have been made. The source code has been used with permission.
(The files for this section can be found in the
So we've been busy little beavers and we've made ourselves a little web application. This web app is going to be bigger than Facebook by far, however, so we need to get ready to add more team workers to the mix. After careful consultation with the oracle of our choice (the author prefers chicken intestines) we've decided that, given that our target platform is SWI-Prolog, the supplied PlDoc facility is how to begin.
But how do we start?
We know (because we've been told a dozen times by now) that PlDoc works through something called "structured comments" which sounds exactly like what we want: keep the documentation together with the source it documents.
Let's crack open the
server.pl file and look at the first predicate listed:
server(Port) :- http_server(http_dispatch, [port(Port)]).
That's not a very friendly predicate! Any newcomer to the code base is almost certainly going to find this bewildering. There's nothing there to guide understanding! Also, there's nothing there we can use to build our external documentation.
Structured comments to the rescue! There are two variants of structured
comments based upon the
/* . . . */ C-style comments or the
comments depending on your preferences. In either case, however, the internal
format is the same. A structured comment consists of three sections in the
Let's concoct a pair of structured comments for the predicate we've listed above.
%% server(+Port:int) is nondet % % The server/1 predicate launches the server main loop at the provided port. % If launched, for example with Port set to 8000, the server can be browsed at % http://localhost:8000. % % @param Port The port the server should listen to.
In a Prolog-style comment, the type and mode descriptions are flagged by use of
%% commenting convention. The types and modes are read from the first
line that uses the double-comment symbol and end with the first line that uses
only a single comment symbol. PlDoc will then read and process the
documentation body until the first line beginning with the
@ symbol. It will
then process the rest of the comment block as tags. Blank lines are ignored
while processing (which is convenient for readable formatting of the comments
in source). So in the above example, the following is the type and mode
server(+Port:int) is nondet
The following is the documentation body:
The server/1 predicate launches the server main loop at the provided port. If launched, for example with Port set to 8000, the server can be browsed at http://localhost:8000.
The following is the tags block:
@param Port The port the server should listen to.
/** * server(+Port:int) is nondet * * The server/1 predicate launches the server main loop at the provided * port. If launched, for example with Port set to 8000, the server can be * browsed at http://localhost:8000. * * @param Port The port the server should listen to. */
The above comment is exactly the same in meaning to the Prolog-style block we
did above and generates exactly the same type/mode block, documentation block
and tags block. The double
** symbol identifies the beginning of a PlDoc
comment. The type/mode block begins with the first non-blank line (which is
why we could start it on a line by itself above). It ends with the first blank
line afterwards which signals the beginning of the documentation body. This
itself ends with the first line beginning with
@, signalling the beginning of
the tags block.
Given that the C-style blocks and the Prolog-style blocks are identical in semantics to PlDoc, all future comment blocks we do in this tutorial will follow the Prolog style of commenting except for the module comment block (which we will address later). This is done to avoid unnecessary replication of code.
module_out.pl contain the results of our first
attempt to document the predicates of our source code in preparation for the
incoming massive team that will have to work with our code. Read the files
preferably side by side with the originals and see how much easier it is to
figure out the module even without any documentation generation!
- Using the
server_out.plfile provided, convert the Prolog-style comments into C-style comments.
- Then convert some of them back.
- Check the structured comments provided in that file and see what other kinds of information would be useful. (Use the online PlDoc reference for types, tags etc. to get ideas.) Add them to the file.
(The files for this section can be found in the
The three sections of a PlDoc comment have three different syntax conventions. None of them is particularly difficult, but it is important to get them in the right place.
Types and modes are not formally a part of Prolog. They are, however, commonly referenced in the literature and documentation about Prolog systems. As concepts they are vital to understanding predicates, even if they're not enforced by the compiler (and, indeed, have no standing at all even in the runtime system.
The full documentation for the type and mode declarations can be found in the SWI-Prolog documentation. To help explain the (rather terse) documentation we will here replicate the type and mode declarations from the previous section and explain them.
Reading this in English one would say something like "the
takes an input parameter named
Port which is an integer." Note that nothing
in the language enforces any aspect of that description. You could try to
pass in an uninstantiated variable. You could pass in an atom like
You could name the parameter
IckyThing in the actual implementation. All of
this will do nothing until runtime at which point you have to contend with
SWI-Prolog's interpreter getting ticked off with you.
Even worse, unlike the instantiation symbols (
there are no standard types. I used
int in this one. It could just as
easily have been
'this here is pretty weird as a type'. Of
course any sane project will have a set of standards for these types written up
in an easily available document. (We'll be talking more about this later.)
Note, also, when you look at the official documents, that the instantiation
pattern and the type are optional. As is the determinism mode (a fact I made
use of here because I'm not actually sure what the determinism of
say_hi(?Request) is det
This predicate is as simple as the above one. I have chosen to drop the type
here (as I'm not familiar enough with the HTTP library in use to know for sure
what to call it). In this case, however, I have added the words
is det to
the end. This is because I know what the determinism mode of this predicate is
supposed to be. It is not supposed to be able to fail and it can only generate
one value. This makes it, in the terminology of Mercury, the
programming language PlDoc borrows the terminology from, "deterministic" and is
thus annotated with
Also of interest in this one is that the instantiation symbol is
?. This is
because the HTTP Request sent in is both an input parameter and an output one.
Parts of it are instantiated and used to help direct the predicate calls
throughout the system and parts of it are unified behind the scenes to fill out
page_content(?Request)// is det
This predicate works like
say_hi/1 but has the added
// annotation. This
means that the predicate in question is a DCG clause. Discussion of DCG
clauses is out of scope for this tutorial, however, except for mentioning how
nav(?Name:atom, ?HREF:atom) is nondet
Well, we're back with types here and we've got the
is nondet annotation
added. To explain why this predicate is non-deterministic, let's first look at
nav('Home', '/home'). nav('About', '/about'). nav('Recipes', '/recipes').
What happens if we call this with
nav(X, Y)? The runtime leaves choice
points; we can get up to three results back from this. That means it has to be
non-deterministic or multiple-return (
is nondet or
is multi). To know
which it is, consider what happens if we call
nav('YAY TEAM!', X) or
'YAY TEAM!'). We would get a failure. The
is multi indicator specifies
that it cannot fail; it must succeed at least one time. Thus
This brings us to our final example:
as_top_nav(+Name, -Pred) is semidet
as_top_nav/2 takes a name as an input parameter and
returns a predicate term as an output parameter. But why is it
Semi-deterministic predicates will either succeed precisely once or they will fail. Let's look at the implementation:
as_top_nav(Name, a([href=HREF, class=topnav], Name)) :- nav(Name, HREF).
Name is an input parameter, it must be instantiated. This means
nav/2 will either return a value in its
HREF parameter or it will not.
There will be no choice points. One value or no values. It's
With this explanation you should be ready to read and understand the SWI-Prolog reference for type and mode declarations. The only thing left to note is that it is perfectly acceptable to have multiple type and mode declarations for a single predicate. Prolog is a remarkably flexible language and, PlDoc being a documentation tool (as opposed to a compiler), it is probably best to document the expected use cases in the type and mode declarations block. Like this:
length(+List:list, -Length:int) is det. % 1. length(?List:list, -Length:int) is nondet. % 2. length(?List:list, +Length:int) is det. % 3.
These declarations, taken from the PlDoc reference, illustrate the three common use cases for the list length operation:
Length the number of elements in
Generate any number of lists in
List (filled with uninstantiated
variables) and return the list generated plus the length in
Generate a list with
Length uninstantiated variable and return it in
- Visit the SWI-Prolog Library documentation and look over the various modules. For those with type and mode declarations (not all of them have this!) try to figure out what is meant by each and, importantly, try to work out why the determinism is what it's listed as.
The syntax of the documentation body is a Wiki notation based upon the venerable TWiki web application. Details of the conventional structuring notation are left for exploration of the documentation. The Prolog-specific extensions, however, warrant some further exploration.
TWiki is itself a very large, very complicated Wiki syntax. It is far outside of the scope of this tutorial to show every nook and cranny of it. Instead the alterations of and enhancements to the TWiki format are discussed here, along with some notes on how to use the more common markup tags. For more details on the TWiki format itself, consult the following sources:
The last link, in particular, is likely of most direct use, especially when combined with the PlDoc documentation page.
When describing parameters or various use cases of a predicate, it is common to provide example terms to explain the various kinds of behaviour. Consider, for example, the length/2 predicate shown above. The type declaration provided shows three use cases. The body of the description should show the provided examples:
* length([1,2,3], Size) Return in `Size` the length of the list `[1,2,3]`. (`Size = 3.`) * length(List, Size) Starting at `Size=0`, generate lists `List` of uninstantiated variables. ( `List = , Size = 0; List = [_G11], Size = 1; List = [_G11, _G12], Size = 2,` ... ) * length(List, 2) Generate a list of 2 uninstantiated variables. ( `List = [_G11, _G12].` )
Note when using these that the closing
. character should not be provided.
The Wiki processor will supply it on your behalf (a questionable approach in
this author's humble opinion).
The usual TWiki rules for links apply with little change. There are three Prolog-specific enhancements of TWiki's notation: predicate links, file links and images. In addition there is an extra form of hyperlink notation.
Any construct in the form of
<url> is converted into a hyperlink. It is
chiefly used when making complex urls through
www_browser:expand_url_path/2 aliasing in which case the
<alias>:<local>. (You will have to consult documentation for
this feature should you choose to use it.)
Predicates can be linked by simple use of
functor/arity (regular) or
functor//arity (DCG) in the documentation body. Any such predicates which
are documented in anything else processed by PlDoc will be linked in the
ensuing documentation. Note, this will not link to documentation that PlDoc
hasn't been informed about!
name.ext will be converted to a link to the named file if the file exists
ext is any of:
Images can be linked to as stated above for file links, but to have images
displayed instead they must be wrapped in double square braces:
Unlike link markup of predicate names (like
length/2), predicate lists are
used to bring in the content of a predicate's description inline in your
documentation. This is usually most useful for file-level documentation, but
can be useful even in predicate-level documentation. The following two
examples will illustrate the differences:
The following predicates are useful for manipulating lists in Prolog: * member/2 * append/3 * prefix/2 ...
This code will provide the user with a list of links to the named predicates. Compare and contrast with:
The following predicates are useful for manipulating lists in Prolog: * [[member/2]] * [[append/3]] * [[prefix/2]] ...
This code will instead bring in the documentation for the cited predicates. This permits replication of information without the dangers of being required to change source in multiple locations.
Font markup works as normal for TWiki-style markup with one very important exception:
font markup will only work as documented for one word at a time! This is because
of the prevalence of
_ in code. Should a larger stream of text be desired in
an alternative font, it must be wrapped in additional vertical bar (
*|Many words done in bold.|*
_|Many words emphasized.|_
=|Many words done as code.|=
Blocks of code are preceded and followed by
== as follows:
== append(, A, A). append([A|B], C, [A|D]) :- append(B, C, D). ==
- Visit the SWI-Prolog Library documentation and look over the various modules. See if you can find examples of all of the above syntax constructs in the real documentation.
- (Optional) If you have the SWI-Prolog source installed on your system, inspect it for each of the above syntax elements and compare it to the results in the online documentation.
As with the documentation body, the details of the tags are best left to the reference documentation. The following tags are best-suited to documenting predicates, however, with the remaining tags more useful for file-level documentation (which is addressed later):
(As a point of style it would probably be better to fix bugs than to document them!)
- Visit the SWI-Prolog Library documentation and look over the various modules. See if you can find examples of all of the above tags in the real documentation.
- (Optional) If you have the SWI-Prolog source installed on your system, inspect it for each of the above tags and compare it to the results in the online documentation.
(The files for this section can be found in the
So far we have focused on documenting predicates, but a good reference document should also provide information at the module level as well. Documenting a complex module by only explaining individual predicates is rather like documenting how to build a house by explaining the component bricks and beams and nails and such in isolation: confusing and pointless.
server.pl are the output of the previous chapter
unaltered. We will be adding module level comments to them to illustrate how
this is accomplished; the ensuing files will be
server_out.pl. Keep in mind that just as an example of a coding style the
module comment will be done as a C-style comment (
/* ... */) instead of a
Prolog-style one (
It appears that as a bug or by design, PlDoc requires the module comment to be a C-style comment! It is only by good fortune that the author of this piece didn't stumble headlong into this problem by selecting, at random, C-style module comments for illustrative purposes.
The syntax of module comments is identical to that of the predicate comments
except that the type and mode declaration is replaced by
<module> followed by
the title of the module. Here is the module comment for the server, by way of
/** <module> Sample HTTP Server * * This module is part of Anne Ogborn's [[Creating Web Applications in * SWI-Prolog][http://www.pathwayslms.com/swipltuts/html/index.html]] * tutorial. It illustrates the * [[Mailman][http://www.swi-prolog.org/pldoc/doc_for?object=section%284,%273.17.2%27,swi%28%27/doc/packages/http.html%27%29%29]] * facility of SWI-Prolog's web application library. * * @author Anne Ogborn (Prolog code) * @author Michael T. Richter (PlDoc markup) * @version ch2.8 * @see http://www.pathwayslms.com/swipltuts/html/index.html * @copyright (c)2012 Anne Ogborn. * @license All rights reserved. Used with permission. */
Aside from the "type" header, the only real difference between a module-scoped comment and a predicate-scoped one is the tags which apply. The tags most likely to apply to the module scope are:
One thing to beware of, the
:- module(...). declaration must precede the
module comment. Failure to do this will result in the module documentation not
Accomplishments So Far
HTTP Server and Browser
While it may not seem like it, we have actually accomplished a lot so far. Indeed the most important part of documentation is behind us: the content. By using a structured tool for writing the reference documentation we have source files that completely document the module in a way that aids comprehension; this is vital to any team-oriented task work.
Still, that being said, it would be nice, wouldn't it, if we could reference this documentation in ways other than scrolling through our source.
(The files for this section can be found in the
One of the almost-unique uses of PlDoc lies in its use as an online documentation server in development. The work cycle goes roughly like this:
Any module anywhere that you use can be referenced in this documentation provided the source is available and suitably commented. (This includes the SWI-Prolog system libraries themselves, along with any packs you may have installed.) This feature makes PlDoc a valuable tool in your toolbox.
To make use of this, however, you'll need to modify your load/debug/whatever
scripts. (You do use these, right?) In this tutorial, we will be
making use of
:- load_files([server, module], ). :- unload_file(debug). :- unload_file(load).
Our load script is dirt simple (to go along with the dirt simple web
application underlying it). It merely loads our
files and then unloads the
load.pl file to avoid clutter in
the documentation server.
:- doc_server(4040). :- portray_text(true). [load].
Our debug script, on the other hand, does some interesting stuff. The first
thing it does is it starts up the documentation server on port 4040. You can
consult the full docs for details, but in general your debug
script will fire up the documentation server with
doc_server/2 as we did. You will probably also want to call
to ensure that strings are displayed as, well, strings (instead of lists of
integers). Once all that has been done, the debug script simply consults the
load script (which we've already seen above).
From within our project directory we fire up SWI-Prolog and call the debug script as follows:
$ swipl % /home/michael/.plrc compiled 0.03 sec, 1,501 clauses Welcome to SWI-Prolog (Multi-threaded, 64 bits, Version 6.3.0) Copyright (c) 1990-2012 University of Amsterdam, VU Amsterdam SWI-Prolog comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Please visit http://www.swi-prolog.org for details. For help, use ?- help(Topic). or ?- apropos(Word). 1 ?- [debug]. % Started Prolog Documentation server at port 4040 % You may access the server at http://localhost:4040/ % library(prolog_stack) compiled into prolog_stack 0.01 sec, 72 clauses % library(http/http_error) compiled into http_error 0.02 sec, 80 clauses % module compiled into module 0.00 sec, 10 clauses % server compiled 0.03 sec, 127 clauses % module compiled into module 0.00 sec, 1 clauses % load compiled 0.03 sec, 133 clauses % debug compiled 1.23 sec, 11,556 clauses true. 2 ?-
At this point the documentation server is running and the project code has been loaded. We should be good to go. Open a browser at http://localhost:4040 and see the glory!
Waitwhat?! This isn't the documentation server! There's nothing document-like about this! What's going on?
Well, one of the weaknesses of PlDoc is one we wouldn't have seen if it weren't for the fact that our sample project is a web server. PlDoc and our web server are running at the same time in the same instance of SWI-Prolog and they're clashing. Our web app wins because its mapping of the root happens after the one the documentation server made.
The solution to this problem is fairly trivial. We have to pick an url we want
to serve our help from and modify the debug script (now called
purposes of this tutorial) to take this into account.
:- use_module(library(http/http_path)). http:location(pldoc, root('help/source'), [priority(10)]). :- doc_server(4040). :- portray_text(true). :- [load2].
The change here is to define very early in the proceedings an
http:location/3 predicate that redirects all PlDoc urls to, in this case,
<base_url>/help/source. Now instead of accessing http://localhost:4040 we
instead access http://localhost:4040/help/source. Do that now and you'll be
rewarded with our documentation.
One very important item to note is that the full contents of the module comment will not be displayed unless the source file is a proper Prolog module. Only the name of the file will be displayed on its reference page, for example. To have all of your documentation information displayed (as detailed later), you will have to add a line like the following (which we've added for our example) to your code:
:- module(server, [http_handler/3, server/1]).
An additional point to note is that by default only the public (i.e. exported) predicates will initially show in the documentation. To see the private (i.e. non-exported) predicates, you will have to click on the icon that looks like the image to the left. To switch back to the public-only view you will have to click on the icon that looks like the image to the right.
- Remove one or both of the
load.pland see what the results are.
- Remove the
debug2.pland see what the results are.
There are several reasons why being able to access the documentation live while coding is useful:
That last point needs some expansion. As an experiment, change some of the
markup in the structured comments in
server.pl while the documentation server
is running. Now hit the refresh in your browser. Watch as nothing whatsoever
changes! Now go to your SWI-Prolog console and type
[load]. followed by
the return key. Refresh your browser again. Note the changed markup! The
magic is that PlDoc's server will reconstruct its information every time you
load a module. (We just reloaded everything by using
[load]., but we could
just as easily have used
[server]. instead.) When working on shared code
bases, on a live development session you could update your code base from an
SCM repository, reload and have all your partners' working documentation
updated on your screen!
Add a new module to the project. Ensure that it contains:
- a module-level structured comment
- at least one predicate
- one predicate-level structured comment per predicate added
Add the new module to the
load.plscript and reload with
[load].Check the results in your browser after reloading the page.
The same ability to do documentation reading and updating while working live on
the code can be used to serve up the documentation as a straight-up
documentation server. (This is, indeed, how the SWI-Prolog documentation
itself is provided to the web.) To do this you use the
predicate with the
allow(...) option to permit the documentation server to
work on more than
localhost. You would then, instead of loading your code,
Full details on this (ridiculously simple) process are available in the PlDoc Reference Manual.
(The files for this section can be found in the
Good documentation needs to be available offline as well. PlDoc helps in this with its LaTeX back-end which can easily and quickly generate high-quality reference documentation with a quick command line at the shell:
swipl -g "doc_latex(['server.pl','module.pl'], 'doc.tex', [public_only(false)]),halt" -t "halt(1)"
Obviously this will have to be put into a script file or a Makefile goal
because you won't want to type this each time, but the operation of this could
not be simpler. The
doc_latex/3 predicate here is being used with these
The option selected specifies that we want all predicates documented, not only those exported from the module. (The reason for this is that our source files aren't done in modules.)
Full details of using
doc_latex/3 are available in the PlDoc reference
documentation. Other, finer-grained predicates are also documented
One important point to note is that you need the
pldoc.sty LaTeX style sheet
on your command line for
latex or in your working directory. This file can
be found in
- Using the extra module you added from previous exercises, generate a TeX document that includes your new module.
- Experiment with the command line to reorder the modules in the document.
- Write a PrologScript (or equivalent) that gives convenient command line access to creating TeX documents based on arguments.
- Create a
docsthat automatically bundles all of a project's Prolog source files into a TeX document. (This may or may not involve the script you created previously.)
How Project Documentation Differs
Building a Better Reference
Building a User Guide
So far we have very good documentation, but only for the developers on the team. It's purely reference documentation and it's not tied well together. For people who know the project already this isn't a problem, but we don't just document for our current team, do we? We'll have newcomers to bring up to speed and we'll have third-party users to contend with. Even our reference documentation nees a bit more of a punch.
To tie the documentation together into a more coherent whole, we need to have some way of organizing our documentation within a broader framework like an opening section that talks about the project as a whole and what its components are. This section could, for example, talk about how the various source files relate to each other or could assemble the predicates into related groups with interspersed commentary instead of merely dumping them in source code order.
In addition there are document types that go beyond simple references like user guides (which offer architectural overview, typical work flows, hook points, expected use cases and "recipes" for use) or tutorials (which, like this document, give detailed instructions for basic use for first-time users). Both of these can be written using PlDoc's markup (although there will be decreasing value the farther you move from the structured code comments).
(The files for this section can be found in the
The first tool available for documentation purposes is the humble text file. Several such files are treated specially by PlDoc and are used to help structure documentation into something meaningful. All of the Wiki markup cited above and in the SWI-Prolog documentation apply here and, indeed, a wider subset of the markup is likely to be used in text files (including, for example, horizontal rules or heading markup).
README, which may also be named
README.txt, is used to help
build the so-called directory index. The directory index is a landing page
built by the PlDoc document server. The contents of
README are first
displayed, followed by a table of all the project source files (plus their
descriptive summary) and their public predicates.
TODO, which may also be named with the
.txt suffix as above, is
appended to the directory index.
PlDoc will serve up
TODO over the versions with
.TXT suffixes. That is to say if you have a
README file and a
file, PlDoc will display the contents of the former in the landing page, not
This is unfortunate because for maximum portability across platforms you should
probably use the
*.txt naming convention; in Windows, for example, it's
impossible to associate the name
README with a program while
already configured out of the box to open with a text editor.
- Create a
README.txt, and a
README.TXTfile and figure out which is higher priority than which when PlDoc loads.
- Do the same for
Whenever the text
TODO, or any name ending in
encountered inside Wiki source, a link is generated. (Other
files share this property.) Any such referenced text files are
processed as Wiki documents, allowing for rich mark-up. This is one of the
primary techniques for documenting more than just references.
The following files have been added to the project to help rein in the documentation chaos:
Run SWI-Prolog from that directory and enter the following:
Now fire up the browser and point at http://localhost:4040/help/source. Note how the better use of structured commenting in README and TODO make the landing page much more accessible. It's also nice having links to the tutorial and user guide immediately visible even before the module reference. (Note also how the module reference had a header added beforehand to make it stand out more in the formatting.)
If you clink through to the tutorial or to the user guide you'll also see documentation formatted from whole cloth using the TWiki syntax.
But ... what's this oddity in
The entire contents of userguide.txt are shown below:
---+ "So You Want to Make Prolog Web Apps?" ---++ A user guide. ---+++ Devoid of any meaningful content. Because this is just an example after all. ---++++ Well, here's a bit of content. * [[http_handler/3]]
If, however, you click through on it, you will see a whole lot more than just
these lines (formatted by the wiki processor). Indeed you'll see a lot of
information for the
http_handler/3 predicate including details that aren't
in our source code.
This is the magic of the predicate description list format. By using that notation we tell the document processor that we want it to replicate the full documentation for the named predicate at the given point in the document.
This is a powerful capability that allows better reference manuals to be made. Instead of relying on the (admittedly not bad) landing page with its alphabetic list of modules and the underlying alphabetic list of public predicates, it is quite possible to instead have a richer reference document that pulls in predicate references (including from the whole SWI-Prolog system, not just our own code!) in an order that makes more sense to the user.
As an example, the modules could be introduced in an order that is more likely
to be seen by someone actually using the software. Related predicates could be
grouped in such a way as to be together, even if one predicate is called
anteater/2 and the other is called
zebra/1. Explanations on how to use
predicates (e.g. sample code) can be interspersed where they make the most
sense. You'll still have your landing page and straightforward module and
predicate dictionary, but you'll also have better, more usefully-arranged
reference material without code replication.
- Build a better reference using TWiki syntax and predicate description lists.
Building a user guide is just like building a better reference, only moreso. When building the user guide you'll be doing less wholesale importing of predicate documentation and making more use of code examples, term lists, and links to predicate documentation.
When building a user guide, you may find yourself having to repeatedly
introduce things like sample code verbatim in several parts of your document.
In such circumstances putting the snippet of code into its own file and
referencing it in your documentation like
[[snippet.txt]] will import it
verbatim. If you have to change your sample code, you only change it in one
place and it will be updated in your documentation wherever it is referenced.
User guides and tutorials are the obvious kinds of extra documentation that a project is going to need. Other documents, however, are also possible and, indeed, for any project of any decent size, required. These can include:
The imagination of the users is about the only limit to the kinds of uses to which PlDoc can be put in a team environment.
Remember the part where we talked about the types and modes?
Remember how it was mentioned that a sane team would probably have a set of
standards for the type names written up? Remember how we then hand-waved over
that? The waving stops here. It is almost mandatory, in the opinion of this
author, to have a rigorous list of types documented in a single place. The
file name could even be something difficult to remember like
Linking to (or flat-out including with double square brackets!) this document
in the README file would give a convenient way to reference the available types
while coding or reading the project's reference documentation. Such a document
could be very easily written like this:
---## Standard Types $ int32: a 32-bit signed integer $ int64: a 64-bit signed integer $ request: a composite value containing an HTTP request $ str: a list of integers interpreted as a string (encoding not specified) $ utf8str: a list of integers interpreted as a string (UTF-8 encoded) $ name: an atom interpreted as a name
Note here that the "types" are intentional types: they document the intent of the passed-in type. For example in SWI-Prolog there is no such thing as a "32-bit integer" or a "64-bit integer". In a given piece of software, however, there may be reason to be aware of intended restrictions; the PlDoc types are for documentation purposes, not for enforcement.
Rather than documenting the literal type (which, in Prolog, is a rather restricted set!), it is, in the opinion of this author, more important to document how the type is intended to be used with implicit limitations.
- Make a document that documents the types used in
The author of this piece would like to thank Anne Ogborn for the impetus to write this tutorial, as well as for the sample code used to illustrate it.
The author of this piece can be reached via email at
email@example.com. This is also his GoogleTalk ID. He has been
known to frequent the
##prolog channel on the Freenode IRC service as
ttmrichter. He also has a Google+ Page upon which he vents his
spleen to his ever-shrinking set of so-called "circles". He also maintains a
blog of sorts.