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#!/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
This file is part of the web2py Web Framework
Copyrighted by Massimo Di Pierro <mdipierro@cs.depaul.edu>
License: LGPLv3 (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl.html)

gluon.rewrite parses incoming URLs and formats outgoing URLs for gluon.html.URL.

In addition, it rewrites both incoming and outgoing URLs based on the (optional) user-supplied routes.py,
which also allows for rewriting of certain error messages.

routes.py supports two styles of URL rewriting, depending on whether 'routers' is defined.
Refer to router.example.py and routes.example.py for additional documentation.

"""

import os
import re
import logging
import traceback
import threading
import urllib
from storage import Storage, List
from http import HTTP
from fileutils import abspath, read_file
from settings import global_settings

logger = logging.getLogger('web2py.rewrite')

thread = threading.local()  # thread-local storage for routing parameters

def _router_default():
    "return new copy of default base router"
    router = Storage(
        default_application = 'init',
            applications = 'ALL',
        default_controller = 'default',
            controllers = 'DEFAULT',
        default_function = 'index',
            functions = dict(),
        default_language = None,
            languages = None,
        root_static = ['favicon.ico', 'robots.txt'],
        domains = None,
        exclusive_domain = False,
        map_hyphen = False,
        acfe_match = r'\w+$',              # legal app/ctlr/fcn/ext
        file_match = r'(\w+[-=./]?)+$',    # legal file (path) name
        args_match = r'([\w@ -]+[=.]?)*$', # legal arg in args
    )
    return router

def _params_default(app=None):
    "return new copy of default parameters"
    p = Storage()
    p.name = app or "BASE"
    p.default_application = app or "init"
    p.default_controller = "default"
    p.default_function = "index"
    p.routes_app = []
    p.routes_in = []
    p.routes_out = []
    p.routes_onerror = []
    p.routes_apps_raw = []
    p.error_handler = None
    p.error_message = '<html><body><h1>%s</h1></body></html>'
    p.error_message_ticket = \
        '<html><body><h1>Internal error</h1>Ticket issued: <a href="/admin/default/ticket/%(ticket)s" target="_blank">%(ticket)s</a></body><!-- this is junk text else IE does not display the page: '+('x'*512)+' //--></html>'
    p.routers = None
    return p

params_apps = dict()
params = _params_default(app=None)  # regex rewrite parameters
thread.routes = params              # default to base regex rewrite parameters
routers = None

ROUTER_KEYS = set(('default_application', 'applications', 'default_controller', 'controllers',
    'default_function', 'functions', 'default_language', 'languages',
    'domain', 'domains', 'root_static', 'path_prefix',
    'exclusive_domain', 'map_hyphen', 'map_static',
    'acfe_match', 'file_match', 'args_match'))

ROUTER_BASE_KEYS = set(('applications', 'default_application', 'domains', 'path_prefix'))

#  The external interface to rewrite consists of:
#
#  load: load routing configuration file(s)
#  url_in: parse and rewrite incoming URL
#  url_out: assemble and rewrite outgoing URL
#
#  thread.routes.default_application
#  thread.routes.error_message
#  thread.routes.error_message_ticket
#  thread.routes.try_redirect_on_error
#  thread.routes.error_handler
#
#  filter_url: helper for doctest & unittest
#  filter_err: helper for doctest & unittest
#  regex_filter_out: doctest

def url_in(request, environ):
    "parse and rewrite incoming URL"
    if routers:
        return map_url_in(request, environ)
    return regex_url_in(request, environ)

def url_out(request, env, application, controller, function, args, other, scheme, host, port):
    "assemble and rewrite outgoing URL"
    if routers:
        acf = map_url_out(request, env, application, controller, function, args, other, scheme, host, port)
        url = '%s%s' % (acf, other)
    else:
        url = '/%s/%s/%s%s' % (application, controller, function, other)
        url = regex_filter_out(url, env)
    #
    #  fill in scheme and host if absolute URL is requested
    #  scheme can be a string, eg 'http', 'https', 'ws', 'wss'
    #
    if scheme or port is not None:
        if host is None:    # scheme or port implies host
            host = True
    if not scheme or scheme is True:
        if request and request.env:
            scheme = request.env.get('WSGI_URL_SCHEME', 'http').lower()
        else:
            scheme = 'http' # some reasonable default in case we need it
    if host is not None:
        if host is True:
            host = request.env.http_host
    if host:
        if port is None:
            port = ''
        else:
            port = ':%s' % port
        url = '%s://%s%s%s' % (scheme, host, port, url)
    return url

def try_rewrite_on_error(http_response, request, environ, ticket=None):
    """
    called from main.wsgibase to rewrite the http response.
    """
    status = int(str(http_response.status).split()[0])
    if status>=399 and thread.routes.routes_onerror:
        keys=set(('%s/%s' % (request.application, status),
                  '%s/*' % (request.application),
                  '*/%s' % (status),
                  '*/*'))
        for (key,uri) in thread.routes.routes_onerror:
            if key in keys:
                if uri == '!':
                    # do nothing!
                    return http_response, environ
                elif '?' in uri:
                    path_info, query_string = uri.split('?',1)
                    query_string += '&'
                else:
                    path_info, query_string = uri, ''
                query_string += \
                    'code=%s&ticket=%s&requested_uri=%s&request_url=%s' % \
                    (status,ticket,request.env.request_uri,request.url)
                if uri.startswith('http://') or uri.startswith('https://'):
                    # make up a response
                    url = path_info+'?'+query_string
                    message = 'You are being redirected <a href="%s">here</a>'
                    return HTTP(303, message % url, Location=url), environ
                elif path_info!=environ['PATH_INFO']:
                    # rewrite request, call wsgibase recursively, avoid loop
                    environ['PATH_INFO'] = path_info
                    environ['QUERY_STRING'] = query_string
                    return None, environ
    # do nothing!
    return http_response, environ

def try_redirect_on_error(http_object, request, ticket=None):
    "called from main.wsgibase to rewrite the http response"
    status = int(str(http_object.status).split()[0])
    if status>399 and thread.routes.routes_onerror:
        keys=set(('%s/%s' % (request.application, status),
                  '%s/*' % (request.application),
                  '*/%s' % (status),
                  '*/*'))
        for (key,redir) in thread.routes.routes_onerror:
            if key in keys:
                if redir == '!':
                    break
                elif '?' in redir:
                    url = '%s&code=%s&ticket=%s&requested_uri=%s&request_url=%s' % \
                        (redir,status,ticket,request.env.request_uri,request.url)
                else:
                    url = '%s?code=%s&ticket=%s&requested_uri=%s&request_url=%s' % \
                        (redir,status,ticket,request.env.request_uri,request.url)
                return HTTP(303,
                            'You are being redirected <a href="%s">here</a>' % url,
                            Location=url)
    return http_object


def load(routes='routes.py', app=None, data=None, rdict=None):
    """
    load: read (if file) and parse routes
    store results in params
    (called from main.py at web2py initialization time)
    If data is present, it's used instead of the routes.py contents.
    If rdict is present, it must be a dict to be used for routers (unit test)
    """
    global params
    global routers
    if app is None:
        # reinitialize
        global params_apps
        params_apps = dict()
        params = _params_default(app=None)  # regex rewrite parameters
        thread.routes = params              # default to base regex rewrite parameters
        routers = None

    if isinstance(rdict, dict):
        symbols = dict(routers=rdict)
        path = 'rdict'
    else:
        if data is not None:
            path = 'routes'
        else:
            if app is None:
                path = abspath(routes)
            else:
                path = abspath('applications', app, routes)
            if not os.path.exists(path):
                return
            data = read_file(path).replace('\r\n','\n')

        symbols = {}
        try:
            exec (data + '\n') in symbols
        except SyntaxError, e:
            logger.error(
                '%s has a syntax error and will not be loaded\n' % path
                + traceback.format_exc())
            raise e

    p = _params_default(app)

    for sym in ('routes_app', 'routes_in', 'routes_out'):
        if sym in symbols:
            for (k, v) in symbols[sym]:
                p[sym].append(compile_regex(k, v))
    for sym in ('routes_onerror', 'routes_apps_raw',
                'error_handler','error_message', 'error_message_ticket',
                'default_application','default_controller', 'default_function'):
        if sym in symbols:
            p[sym] = symbols[sym]
    if 'routers' in symbols:
        p.routers = Storage(symbols['routers'])
        for key in p.routers:
            if isinstance(p.routers[key], dict):
                p.routers[key] = Storage(p.routers[key])

    if app is None:
        params = p                  # install base rewrite parameters
        thread.routes = params      # install default as current routes
        #
        #  create the BASE router if routers in use
        #
        routers = params.routers    # establish routers if present
        if isinstance(routers, dict):
            routers = Storage(routers)
        if routers is not None:
            router = _router_default()
            if routers.BASE:
                router.update(routers.BASE)
            routers.BASE = router

        #  scan each app in applications/
        #    create a router, if routers are in use
        #    parse the app-specific routes.py if present
        #
        all_apps = []
        for appname in [app for app in os.listdir(abspath('applications')) if not app.startswith('.')]:
            if os.path.isdir(abspath('applications', appname)) and \
               os.path.isdir(abspath('applications', appname, 'controllers')):
                all_apps.append(appname)
                if routers:
                    router = Storage(routers.BASE)   # new copy
                    if appname in routers:
                        for key in routers[appname].keys():
                            if key in ROUTER_BASE_KEYS:
                                raise SyntaxError, "BASE-only key '%s' in router '%s'" % (key, appname)
                        router.update(routers[appname])
                    routers[appname] = router
                if os.path.exists(abspath('applications', appname, routes)):
                    load(routes, appname)

        if routers:
            load_routers(all_apps)

    else: # app
        params_apps[app] = p
        if routers and p.routers:
            if app in p.routers:
                routers[app].update(p.routers[app])

    logger.debug('URL rewrite is on. configuration in %s' % path)


regex_at = re.compile(r'(?<!\\)\$[a-zA-Z]\w*')
regex_anything = re.compile(r'(?<!\\)\$anything')

def compile_regex(k, v):
    """
    Preprocess and compile the regular expressions in routes_app/in/out

    The resulting regex will match a pattern of the form:

        [remote address]:[protocol]://[host]:[method] [path]

    We allow abbreviated regexes on input; here we try to complete them.
    """
    k0 = k  # original k for error reporting
    # bracket regex in ^...$ if not already done
    if not k[0] == '^':
        k = '^%s' % k
    if not k[-1] == '$':
        k = '%s$' % k
    # if there are no :-separated parts, prepend a catch-all for the IP address
    if k.find(':') < 0:
        # k = '^.*?:%s' % k[1:]
        k = '^.*?:https?://[^:/]+:[a-z]+ %s' % k[1:]
    # if there's no ://, provide a catch-all for the protocol, host & method
    if k.find('://') < 0:
        i = k.find(':/')
        if i < 0:
            raise SyntaxError, "routes pattern syntax error: path needs leading '/' [%s]" % k0
        k = r'%s:https?://[^:/]+:[a-z]+ %s' % (k[:i], k[i+1:])
    # $anything -> ?P<anything>.*
    for item in regex_anything.findall(k):
        k = k.replace(item, '(?P<anything>.*)')
    # $a (etc) -> ?P<a>\w+
    for item in regex_at.findall(k):
        k = k.replace(item, r'(?P<%s>\w+)' % item[1:])
    # same for replacement pattern, but with \g
    for item in regex_at.findall(v):
        v = v.replace(item, r'\g<%s>' % item[1:])
    return (re.compile(k, re.DOTALL), v)

def load_routers(all_apps):
    "load-time post-processing of routers"

    for app in routers.keys():
        # initialize apps with routers that aren't present, on behalf of unit tests
        if app not in all_apps:
            all_apps.append(app)
            router = Storage(routers.BASE)   # new copy
            if app != 'BASE':
                for key in routers[app].keys():
                    if key in ROUTER_BASE_KEYS:
                        raise SyntaxError, "BASE-only key '%s' in router '%s'" % (key, app)
            router.update(routers[app])
            routers[app] = router
        router = routers[app]
        for key in router.keys():
            if key not in ROUTER_KEYS:
                raise SyntaxError, "unknown key '%s' in router '%s'" % (key, app)
        if not router.controllers:
            router.controllers = set()
        elif not isinstance(router.controllers, str):
            router.controllers = set(router.controllers)
        if router.languages:
            router.languages = set(router.languages)
        else:
            router.languages = set()
        if app != 'BASE':
            for base_only in ROUTER_BASE_KEYS:
                router.pop(base_only, None)
            if 'domain' in router:
                routers.BASE.domains[router.domain] = app
            if isinstance(router.controllers, str) and router.controllers == 'DEFAULT':
                router.controllers = set()
                if os.path.isdir(abspath('applications', app)):
                    cpath = abspath('applications', app, 'controllers')
                    for cname in os.listdir(cpath):
                        if os.path.isfile(abspath(cpath, cname)) and cname.endswith('.py'):
                            router.controllers.add(cname[:-3])
            if router.controllers:
                router.controllers.add('static')
                router.controllers.add(router.default_controller)
            if router.functions:
                if isinstance(router.functions, (set, tuple, list)):
                    functions = set(router.functions)
                    if isinstance(router.default_function, str):
                        functions.add(router.default_function)  # legacy compatibility
                    router.functions = { router.default_controller: functions }
                for controller in router.functions:
                    router.functions[controller] = set(router.functions[controller])
            else:
                router.functions = dict()

    if isinstance(routers.BASE.applications, str) and routers.BASE.applications == 'ALL':
        routers.BASE.applications = list(all_apps)
    if routers.BASE.applications:
        routers.BASE.applications = set(routers.BASE.applications)
    else:
        routers.BASE.applications = set()

    for app in routers.keys():
        # set router name
        router = routers[app]
        router.name = app
        # compile URL validation patterns
        router._acfe_match = re.compile(router.acfe_match)
        router._file_match = re.compile(router.file_match)
        if router.args_match:
            router._args_match = re.compile(router.args_match)
        # convert path_prefix to a list of path elements
        if router.path_prefix:
            if isinstance(router.path_prefix, str):
                router.path_prefix = router.path_prefix.strip('/').split('/')

    #  rewrite BASE.domains as tuples
    #
    #      key:   'domain[:port]' -> (domain, port)
    #      value: 'application[/controller] -> (application, controller)
    #      (port and controller may be None)
    #
    domains = dict()
    if routers.BASE.domains:
        for (domain, app) in [(d.strip(':'), a.strip('/')) for (d, a) in routers.BASE.domains.items()]:
            port = None
            if ':' in domain:
                (domain, port) = domain.split(':')
            ctlr = None
            fcn = None
            if '/' in app:
                (app, ctlr) = app.split('/', 1)
            if ctlr and '/' in ctlr:
                (ctlr, fcn) = ctlr.split('/')
            if app not in all_apps and app not in routers:
                raise SyntaxError, "unknown app '%s' in domains" % app
            domains[(domain, port)] = (app, ctlr, fcn)
    routers.BASE.domains = domains

def regex_uri(e, regexes, tag, default=None):
    "filter incoming URI against a list of regexes"
    path = e['PATH_INFO']
    host = e.get('HTTP_HOST', 'localhost').lower()
    i = host.find(':')
    if i > 0:
        host = host[:i]
    key = '%s:%s://%s:%s %s' % \
        (e.get('REMOTE_ADDR','localhost'),
         e.get('WSGI_URL_SCHEME', 'http').lower(), host,
         e.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'get').lower(), path)
    for (regex, value) in regexes:
        if regex.match(key):
            rewritten = regex.sub(value, key)
            logger.debug('%s: [%s] [%s] -> %s' % (tag, key, value, rewritten))
            return rewritten
    logger.debug('%s: [%s] -> %s (not rewritten)' % (tag, key, default))
    return default

def regex_select(env=None, app=None, request=None):
    """
    select a set of regex rewrite params for the current request
    """
    if app:
        thread.routes = params_apps.get(app, params)
    elif env and params.routes_app:
        if routers:
            map_url_in(request, env, app=True)
        else:
            app = regex_uri(env, params.routes_app, "routes_app")
            thread.routes = params_apps.get(app, params)
    else:
        thread.routes = params # default to base rewrite parameters
    logger.debug("select routing parameters: %s" % thread.routes.name)
    return app  # for doctest

def regex_filter_in(e):
    "regex rewrite incoming URL"
    query = e.get('QUERY_STRING', None)
    e['WEB2PY_ORIGINAL_URI'] = e['PATH_INFO'] + (query and ('?' + query) or '')
    if thread.routes.routes_in:
        path = regex_uri(e, thread.routes.routes_in, "routes_in", e['PATH_INFO'])
        items = path.split('?', 1)
        e['PATH_INFO'] = items[0]
        if len(items) > 1:
            if query:
                query = items[1] + '&' + query
            else:
                query = items[1]
            e['QUERY_STRING'] = query
    e['REQUEST_URI'] = e['PATH_INFO'] + (query and ('?' + query) or '')
    return e


# pattern to replace spaces with underscore in URL
#   also the html escaped variants '+' and '%20' are covered
regex_space = re.compile('(\+|\s|%20)+')

# pattern to find valid paths in url /application/controller/...
#   this could be:
#     for static pages:
#        /<b:application>/static/<x:file>
#     for dynamic pages:
#        /<a:application>[/<c:controller>[/<f:function>[.<e:ext>][/<s:args>]]]
#   application, controller, function and ext may only contain [a-zA-Z0-9_]
#   file and args may also contain '-', '=', '.' and '/'
#   apps in routes_apps_raw must parse raw_args into args

regex_static = re.compile(r'''
     (^                              # static pages
         /(?P<b> \w+)                # b=app
         /static                     # /b/static
         /(?P<x> (\w[\-\=\./]?)* )   # x=file
     $)
     ''', re.X)

regex_url = re.compile(r'''
     (^(                                  # (/a/c/f.e/s)
         /(?P<a> [\w\s+]+ )               # /a=app
         (                                # (/c.f.e/s)
             /(?P<c> [\w\s+]+ )           # /a/c=controller
             (                            # (/f.e/s)
                 /(?P<f> [\w\s+]+ )       # /a/c/f=function
                 (                        # (.e)
                     \.(?P<e> [\w\s+]+ )  # /a/c/f.e=extension
                 )?
                 (                        # (/s)
                     /(?P<r>              # /a/c/f.e/r=raw_args
                     .*
                     )
                 )?
             )?
         )?
     )?
     /?$)
     ''', re.X)

regex_args = re.compile(r'''
     (^
         (?P<s>
             ( [\w@/-][=.]? )*          # s=args
         )?
     /?$)    # trailing slash
     ''', re.X)

def regex_url_in(request, environ):
    "rewrite and parse incoming URL"

    # ##################################################
    # select application
    # rewrite URL if routes_in is defined
    # update request.env
    # ##################################################

    regex_select(env=environ, request=request)

    if thread.routes.routes_in:
        environ = regex_filter_in(environ)

    for (key, value) in environ.items():
        request.env[key.lower().replace('.', '_')] = value

    path = request.env.path_info.replace('\\', '/')

    # ##################################################
    # serve if a static file
    # ##################################################

    match = regex_static.match(regex_space.sub('_', path))
    if match and match.group('x'):
        static_file = os.path.join(request.env.applications_parent,
                                   'applications', match.group('b'),
                                   'static', match.group('x'))
        return (static_file, environ)

    # ##################################################
    # parse application, controller and function
    # ##################################################

    path = re.sub('%20', ' ', path)
    match = regex_url.match(path)
    if not match or match.group('c') == 'static':
        raise HTTP(400,
                   thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                   web2py_error='invalid path')

    request.application = \
        regex_space.sub('_', match.group('a') or thread.routes.default_application)
    request.controller = \
        regex_space.sub('_', match.group('c') or thread.routes.default_controller)
    request.function = \
        regex_space.sub('_', match.group('f') or thread.routes.default_function)
    group_e = match.group('e')
    request.raw_extension = group_e and regex_space.sub('_', group_e) or None
    request.extension = request.raw_extension or 'html'
    request.raw_args = match.group('r')
    request.args = List([])
    if request.application in thread.routes.routes_apps_raw:
        # application is responsible for parsing args
        request.args = None
    elif request.raw_args:
        match = regex_args.match(request.raw_args.replace(' ', '_'))
        if match:
            group_s = match.group('s')
            request.args = \
                List((group_s and group_s.split('/')) or [])
            if request.args and request.args[-1] == '':
                request.args.pop()  # adjust for trailing empty arg
        else:
            raise HTTP(400,
                       thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                       web2py_error='invalid path (args)')
    return (None, environ)


def regex_filter_out(url, e=None):
    "regex rewrite outgoing URL"
    if not hasattr(thread, 'routes'):
        regex_select()    # ensure thread.routes is set (for application threads)
    if routers:
        return url  # already filtered
    if thread.routes.routes_out:
        items = url.split('?', 1)
        if e:
            host = e.get('http_host', 'localhost').lower()
            i = host.find(':')
            if i > 0:
                host = host[:i]
            items[0] = '%s:%s://%s:%s %s' % \
                 (e.get('remote_addr', ''),
                  e.get('wsgi_url_scheme', 'http').lower(), host,
                  e.get('request_method', 'get').lower(), items[0])
        else:
            items[0] = ':http://localhost:get %s' % items[0]
        for (regex, value) in thread.routes.routes_out:
            if regex.match(items[0]):
                rewritten = '?'.join([regex.sub(value, items[0])] + items[1:])
                logger.debug('routes_out: [%s] -> %s' % (url, rewritten))
                return rewritten
    logger.debug('routes_out: [%s] not rewritten' % url)
    return url


def filter_url(url, method='get', remote='0.0.0.0', out=False, app=False, lang=None,
        domain=(None,None), env=False, scheme=None, host=None, port=None):
    "doctest/unittest interface to regex_filter_in() and regex_filter_out()"
    regex_url = re.compile(r'^(?P<scheme>http|https|HTTP|HTTPS)\://(?P<host>[^/]*)(?P<uri>.*)')
    match = regex_url.match(url)
    urlscheme = match.group('scheme').lower()
    urlhost = match.group('host').lower()
    uri = match.group('uri')
    k = uri.find('?')
    if k < 0:
        k = len(uri)
    (path_info, query_string) = (uri[:k], uri[k+1:])
    path_info = urllib.unquote(path_info)   # simulate server
    e = {
         'REMOTE_ADDR': remote,
         'REQUEST_METHOD': method,
         'WSGI_URL_SCHEME': urlscheme,
         'HTTP_HOST': urlhost,
         'REQUEST_URI': uri,
         'PATH_INFO': path_info,
         'QUERY_STRING': query_string,
         #for filter_out request.env use lowercase
         'remote_addr': remote,
         'request_method': method,
         'wsgi_url_scheme': urlscheme,
         'http_host': urlhost
    }

    request = Storage()
    e["applications_parent"] = global_settings.applications_parent
    request.env = Storage(e)
    request.uri_language = lang

    #  determine application only
    #
    if app:
        if routers:
            return map_url_in(request, e, app=True)
        return regex_select(e)

    #  rewrite outbound URL
    #
    if out:
        (request.env.domain_application, request.env.domain_controller) = domain
        items = path_info.lstrip('/').split('/')
        if items[-1] == '':
            items.pop() # adjust trailing empty args
        assert len(items) >= 3, "at least /a/c/f is required"
        a = items.pop(0)
        c = items.pop(0)
        f = items.pop(0)
        if not routers:
            return regex_filter_out(uri, e)
        acf = map_url_out(request, None, a, c, f, items, None, scheme, host, port)
        if items:
            url = '%s/%s' % (acf, '/'.join(items))
            if items[-1] == '':
                url += '/'
        else:
            url = acf
        if query_string:
            url += '?' + query_string
        return url

    #  rewrite inbound URL
    #
    (static, e) = url_in(request, e)
    if static:
        return static
    result = "/%s/%s/%s" % (request.application, request.controller, request.function)
    if request.extension and request.extension != 'html':
        result += ".%s" % request.extension
    if request.args:
        result += " %s" % request.args
    if e['QUERY_STRING']:
        result += " ?%s" % e['QUERY_STRING']
    if request.uri_language:
        result += " (%s)" % request.uri_language
    if env:
        return request.env
    return result


def filter_err(status, application='app', ticket='tkt'):
    "doctest/unittest interface to routes_onerror"
    if status > 399 and thread.routes.routes_onerror:
        keys = set(('%s/%s' % (application, status),
                  '%s/*' % (application),
                  '*/%s' % (status),
                  '*/*'))
        for (key,redir) in thread.routes.routes_onerror:
            if key in keys:
                if redir == '!':
                    break
                elif '?' in redir:
                    url = redir + '&' + 'code=%s&ticket=%s' % (status,ticket)
                else:
                    url = redir + '?' + 'code=%s&ticket=%s' % (status,ticket)
                return url # redirection
    return status # no action

#  router support
#
class MapUrlIn(object):
    "logic for mapping incoming URLs"

    def __init__(self, request=None, env=None):
        "initialize a map-in object"
        self.request = request
        self.env = env

        self.router = None
        self.application = None
        self.language = None
        self.controller = None
        self.function = None
        self.extension = 'html'

        self.controllers = set()
        self.functions = dict()
        self.languages = set()
        self.default_language = None
        self.map_hyphen = False
        self.exclusive_domain = False

        path = self.env['PATH_INFO']
        self.query = self.env.get('QUERY_STRING', None)
        path = path.lstrip('/')
        self.env['PATH_INFO'] = '/' + path
        self.env['WEB2PY_ORIGINAL_URI'] = self.env['PATH_INFO'] + (self.query and ('?' + self.query) or '')

        # to handle empty args, strip exactly one trailing slash, if present
        # .../arg1// represents one trailing empty arg
        #
        if path.endswith('/'):
            path = path[:-1]
        self.args = List(path and path.split('/') or [])

        # see http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3333/#url-reconstruction for URL composition
        self.remote_addr = self.env.get('REMOTE_ADDR','localhost')
        self.scheme = self.env.get('WSGI_URL_SCHEME', 'http').lower()
        self.method = self.env.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'get').lower()
        self.host = self.env.get('HTTP_HOST')
        self.port = None
        if not self.host:
            self.host = self.env.get('SERVER_NAME')
            self.port = self.env.get('SERVER_PORT')
        if not self.host:
            self.host = 'localhost'
            self.port = '80'
        if ':' in self.host:
            (self.host, self.port) = self.host.split(':')
        if not self.port:
            if self.scheme == 'https':
                self.port = '443'
            else:
                self.port = '80'

    def map_prefix(self):
        "strip path prefix, if present in its entirety"
        prefix = routers.BASE.path_prefix
        if prefix:
            prefixlen = len(prefix)
            if prefixlen > len(self.args):
                return
            for i in xrange(prefixlen):
                if prefix[i] != self.args[i]:
                    return  # prefix didn't match
            self.args = List(self.args[prefixlen:]) # strip the prefix

    def map_app(self):
        "determine application name"
        base = routers.BASE  # base router
        self.domain_application = None
        self.domain_controller = None
        self.domain_function = None
        arg0 = self.harg0
        if (self.host, self.port) in base.domains:
            (self.application, self.domain_controller, self.domain_function) = base.domains[(self.host, self.port)]
            self.env['domain_application'] = self.application
            self.env['domain_controller'] = self.domain_controller
            self.env['domain_function'] = self.domain_function
        elif (self.host, None) in base.domains:
            (self.application, self.domain_controller, self.domain_function) = base.domains[(self.host, None)]
            self.env['domain_application'] = self.application
            self.env['domain_controller'] = self.domain_controller
            self.env['domain_function'] = self.domain_function
        elif base.applications and arg0 in base.applications:
            self.application = arg0
        elif arg0 and not base.applications:
            self.application = arg0
        else:
            self.application = base.default_application or ''
        self.pop_arg_if(self.application == arg0)

        if not base._acfe_match.match(self.application):
            raise HTTP(400, thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                       web2py_error="invalid application: '%s'" % self.application)

        if self.application not in routers and \
          (self.application != thread.routes.default_application or self.application == 'welcome'):
            raise HTTP(400, thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                web2py_error="unknown application: '%s'" % self.application)

        #  set the application router
        #
        logger.debug("select application=%s" % self.application)
        self.request.application = self.application
        if self.application not in routers:
            self.router = routers.BASE                # support gluon.main.wsgibase init->welcome
        else:
            self.router = routers[self.application]   # application router
        self.controllers = self.router.controllers
        self.default_controller = self.domain_controller or self.router.default_controller
        self.functions = self.router.functions
        self.languages = self.router.languages
        self.default_language = self.router.default_language
        self.map_hyphen = self.router.map_hyphen
        self.exclusive_domain = self.router.exclusive_domain
        self._acfe_match = self.router._acfe_match
        self._file_match = self.router._file_match
        self._args_match = self.router._args_match

    def map_root_static(self):
        '''
        handle root-static files (no hyphen mapping)

        a root-static file is one whose incoming URL expects it to be at the root,
        typically robots.txt & favicon.ico
        '''
        if len(self.args) == 1 and self.arg0 in self.router.root_static:
            self.controller = self.request.controller = 'static'
            root_static_file = os.path.join(self.request.env.applications_parent,
                                   'applications', self.application,
                                   self.controller, self.arg0)
            logger.debug("route: root static=%s" % root_static_file)
            return root_static_file
        return None

    def map_language(self):
        "handle language (no hyphen mapping)"
        arg0 = self.arg0  # no hyphen mapping
        if arg0 and self.languages and arg0 in self.languages:
            self.language = arg0
        else:
            self.language = self.default_language
        if self.language:
            logger.debug("route: language=%s" % self.language)
            self.pop_arg_if(self.language == arg0)
            arg0 = self.arg0

    def map_controller(self):
        "identify controller"
        #  handle controller
        #
        arg0 = self.harg0    # map hyphens
        if not arg0 or (self.controllers and arg0 not in self.controllers):
            self.controller = self.default_controller or ''
        else:
            self.controller = arg0
        self.pop_arg_if(arg0 == self.controller)
        logger.debug("route: controller=%s" % self.controller)
        if not self.router._acfe_match.match(self.controller):
            raise HTTP(400, thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                       web2py_error='invalid controller')

    def map_static(self):
        '''
        handle static files
        file_match but no hyphen mapping
        '''
        if self.controller != 'static':
            return None
        file = '/'.join(self.args)
        if not self.router._file_match.match(file):
            raise HTTP(400, thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                       web2py_error='invalid static file')
        #
        #  support language-specific static subdirectories,
        #  eg /appname/en/static/filename => applications/appname/static/en/filename
        #  if language-specific file doesn't exist, try same file in static
        #
        if self.language:
            static_file = os.path.join(self.request.env.applications_parent,
                                   'applications', self.application,
                                   'static', self.language, file)
        if not self.language or not os.path.isfile(static_file):
            static_file = os.path.join(self.request.env.applications_parent,
                                   'applications', self.application,
                                   'static', file)
        logger.debug("route: static=%s" % static_file)
        return static_file

    def map_function(self):
        "handle function.extension"
        arg0 = self.harg0    # map hyphens
        functions = self.functions.get(self.controller, set())
        if isinstance(self.router.default_function, dict):
            default_function = self.router.default_function.get(self.controller, None)
        else:
            default_function = self.router.default_function # str or None
        default_function = self.domain_function or default_function
        if not arg0 or functions and arg0 not in functions:
            self.function = default_function or ""
            self.pop_arg_if(arg0 and self.function == arg0)
        else:
            func_ext = arg0.split('.')
            if len(func_ext) > 1:
                self.function = func_ext[0]
                self.extension = func_ext[-1]
            else:
                self.function = arg0
            self.pop_arg_if(True)
        logger.debug("route: function.ext=%s.%s" % (self.function, self.extension))

        if not self.router._acfe_match.match(self.function):
            raise HTTP(400, thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                       web2py_error='invalid function')
        if self.extension and not self.router._acfe_match.match(self.extension):
            raise HTTP(400, thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                       web2py_error='invalid extension')

    def validate_args(self):
        '''
        check args against validation pattern
        '''
        for arg in self.args:
            if not self.router._args_match.match(arg):
                raise HTTP(400, thread.routes.error_message % 'invalid request',
                           web2py_error='invalid arg <%s>' % arg)

    def update_request(self):
        '''
        update request from self
        build env.request_uri
        make lower-case versions of http headers in env
        '''
        self.request.application = self.application
        self.request.controller = self.controller
        self.request.function = self.function
        self.request.extension = self.extension
        self.request.args = self.args
        if self.language:
            self.request.uri_language = self.language
        uri = '/%s/%s/%s' % (self.application, self.controller, self.function)
        if self.map_hyphen:
            uri = uri.replace('_', '-')
        if self.extension != 'html':
            uri += '.' + self.extension
        if self.language:
            uri = '/%s%s' % (self.language, uri)
        uri += self.args and urllib.quote('/' + '/'.join([str(x) for x in self.args])) or ''
        uri += (self.query and ('?' + self.query) or '')
        self.env['REQUEST_URI'] = uri
        for (key, value) in self.env.items():
            self.request.env[key.lower().replace('.', '_')] = value

    @property
    def arg0(self):
        "return first arg"
        return self.args(0)

    @property
    def harg0(self):
        "return first arg with optional hyphen mapping"
        if self.map_hyphen and self.args(0):
            return self.args(0).replace('-', '_')
        return self.args(0)

    def pop_arg_if(self, dopop):
        "conditionally remove first arg and return new first arg"
        if dopop:
            self.args.pop(0)

class MapUrlOut(object):
    "logic for mapping outgoing URLs"

    def __init__(self, request, env, application, controller, function, args, other, scheme, host, port):
        "initialize a map-out object"
        self.default_application = routers.BASE.default_application
        if application in routers:
            self.router = routers[application]
        else:
            self.router = routers.BASE
        self.request = request
        self.env = env
        self.application = application
        self.controller = controller
        self.function = function
        self.args = args
        self.other = other
        self.scheme = scheme
        self.host = host
        self.port = port

        self.applications = routers.BASE.applications
        self.controllers = self.router.controllers
        self.functions = self.router.functions.get(self.controller, set())
        self.languages = self.router.languages
        self.default_language = self.router.default_language
        self.exclusive_domain = self.router.exclusive_domain
        self.map_hyphen = self.router.map_hyphen
        self.map_static = self.router.map_static
        self.path_prefix = routers.BASE.path_prefix

        self.domain_application = request and self.request.env.domain_application
        self.domain_controller = request and self.request.env.domain_controller
        if isinstance(self.router.default_function, dict):
            self.default_function = self.router.default_function.get(self.controller, None)
        else:
            self.default_function = self.router.default_function

        if (self.router.exclusive_domain and self.domain_application and self.domain_application != self.application and not self.host):
            raise SyntaxError, 'cross-domain conflict: must specify host'

        lang = request and request.uri_language
        if lang and self.languages and lang in self.languages:
            self.language = lang
        else:
            self.language = None

        self.omit_application = False
        self.omit_language = False
        self.omit_controller = False
        self.omit_function = False

    def omit_lang(self):
        "omit language if possible"

        if not self.language or self.language == self.default_language:
            self.omit_language = True

    def omit_acf(self):
        "omit what we can of a/c/f"

        router = self.router

        #  Handle the easy no-args case of tail-defaults: /a/c  /a  /
        #
        if not self.args and self.function == self.default_function:
            self.omit_function = True
            if self.controller == router.default_controller:
                self.omit_controller = True
                if self.application == self.default_application:
                    self.omit_application = True

        #  omit default application
        #  (which might be the domain default application)
        #
        default_application = self.domain_application or self.default_application
        if self.application == default_application:
            self.omit_application = True

        #  omit controller if default controller
        #
        default_controller = ((self.application == self.domain_application) and self.domain_controller) or router.default_controller or ''
        if self.controller == default_controller:
            self.omit_controller = True

        #  omit function if possible
        #
        if self.functions and self.function in self.functions and self.function == self.default_function:
            self.omit_function = True

        #  prohibit ambiguous cases
        #
        #  because we presume the lang string to be unambiguous, its presence protects application omission
        #
        if self.omit_language:
            if not self.applications or self.controller in self.applications:
                self.omit_application = False
            if self.omit_application:
                if not self.applications or self.function in self.applications:
                    self.omit_controller = False
        if not self.controllers or self.function in self.controllers:
            self.omit_controller = False
        if self.args:
            if self.args[0] in self.functions or self.args[0] in self.controllers or self.args[0] in self.applications:
                self.omit_function = False
        if self.omit_controller:
            if self.function in self.controllers or self.function in self.applications:
                self.omit_controller = False
        if self.omit_application:
            if self.controller in self.applications:
                self.omit_application = False

        #  handle static as a special case
        #  (easier for external static handling)
        #
        if self.controller == 'static' or self.controller.startswith('static/'):
            if not self.map_static:
                self.omit_application = False
                if self.language:
                    self.omit_language = False
            self.omit_controller = False
            self.omit_function = False

    def build_acf(self):
        "build acf from components"
        acf = ''
        if self.map_hyphen:
            self.application = self.application.replace('_', '-')
            self.controller = self.controller.replace('_', '-')
            if self.controller != 'static' and not self.controller.startswith('static/'):
                self.function = self.function.replace('_', '-')
        if not self.omit_application:
            acf += '/' + self.application
        if not self.omit_language:
            acf += '/' + self.language
        if not self.omit_controller:
            acf += '/' + self.controller
        if not self.omit_function:
            acf += '/' + self.function
        if self.path_prefix:
            acf = '/' + '/'.join(self.path_prefix) + acf
        if self.args:
            return acf
        return acf or '/'

    def acf(self):
        "convert components to /app/lang/controller/function"

        if not routers:
            return None         # use regex filter
        self.omit_lang()        # try to omit language
        self.omit_acf()         # try to omit a/c/f
        return self.build_acf() # build and return the /a/lang/c/f string


def map_url_in(request, env, app=False):
    "route incoming URL"

    #  initialize router-url object
    #
    thread.routes = params  # default to base routes
    map = MapUrlIn(request=request, env=env)
    map.map_prefix()  # strip prefix if present
    map.map_app()     # determine application

    #  configure thread.routes for error rewrite
    #
    if params.routes_app:
        thread.routes = params_apps.get(app, params)

    if app:
        return map.application

    root_static_file = map.map_root_static() # handle root-static files
    if root_static_file:
        return (root_static_file, map.env)
    map.map_language()
    map.map_controller()
    static_file = map.map_static()
    if static_file:
        return (static_file, map.env)
    map.map_function()
    map.validate_args()
    map.update_request()
    return (None, map.env)

def map_url_out(request, env, application, controller, function, args, other, scheme, host, port):
    '''
    supply /a/c/f (or /a/lang/c/f) portion of outgoing url

    The basic rule is that we can only make transformations
    that map_url_in can reverse.

    Suppose that the incoming arguments are a,c,f,args,lang
    and that the router defaults are da, dc, df, dl.

    We can perform these transformations trivially if args=[] and lang=None or dl:

    /da/dc/df => /
    /a/dc/df => /a
    /a/c/df => /a/c

    We would also like to be able to strip the default application or application/controller
    from URLs with function/args present, thus:

        /da/c/f/args  => /c/f/args
        /da/dc/f/args => /f/args

    We use [applications] and [controllers] and {functions} to suppress ambiguous omissions.

    We assume that language names do not collide with a/c/f names.
    '''
    map = MapUrlOut(request, env, application, controller, function, args, other, scheme, host, port)
    return map.acf()

def get_effective_router(appname):
    "return a private copy of the effective router for the specified application"
    if not routers or appname not in routers:
        return None
    return Storage(routers[appname])  # return a copy