TH1 Scripts
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TH1 is a very small scripting language used to help generate web-page content in Fossil.

Origins

TH1 began as a minimalist re-implementation of the Tcl scripting language. There was a need to test the SQLite library on Symbian phones, but at that time all of the test cases for SQLite were written in Tcl and Tcl could not be easily compiled on the SymbianOS. So TH1 was developed as a cut-down version of Tcl that would facilitate running the SQLite test scripts on SymbianOS.

The testing of SQLite on SymbianOS was eventually accomplished by other means. But Fossil was first being designed at about the same time. Early prototypes of Fossil were written in pure Tcl. But as the development shifted toward the use of C-code, the need arose to have a Tcl-like scripting language to help with code generation. TH1 was small and light-weight and used minimal resources and seemed ideally suited for the task.

The name "TH1" stands "Test Harness 1", since that was its original purpose.

Overview

TH1 is a string-processing language. All values are strings. Any numerical operations are accomplished by converting from string to numeric, performing the computation, then converting the result back into a string. (This might seem inefficient, but it is faster than people imagine, and numeric computations do not come up very often for the kinds of work that TH1 does, so it has never been a factor.)

A TH1 script consist of a sequence of commands. Each command is terminated by the first (unescaped) newline or ";" character. The text of the command (excluding the newline or semicolon terminator) is broken into space-separated tokens. The first token is the command name and subsequent tokens are the arguments. In this since, TH1 syntax is similar to the familiar command-line shell syntax.

A token is any sequence of characters other than whitespace and semicolons. Or, all text without double-quotes is a single token even if it includes whitespace and semicolons. Or, all text without nested {...} pairs is a single token.

The nested {...} form of tokens is important because it allows TH1 commands to have an appearance similar to C/C++. It is important to remember, though, that a TH1 script is really just a list of text commands, not a context-free language with a grammar like C/C++. This can be confusing to long-time C/C++ programmers because TH1 does look a lot like C/C++. But the semantics of TH1 are closer to FORTH or Lisp than they are to C.

Consider the "if" command in TH1.

    if {$current eq "dev"} {
      puts "hello"
    } else {
      puts "world"
    }

The example above is a single command. The first token, and the name of the command, is "if". The second token is '$current eq "dev"' - an expression. (The outer {...} are removed from each token by the command parser.) The third token is the 'puts "hello"', with its whitespace and newlines. The fourth token is "else". And the fifth and last token is 'puts "world"'.

The "if" command word by evaluating its first argument (the second token) as an expression, and if that expression is true, evaluating its second argument (the third token) as a TH1 script. If the expression is false and the third argument is "else" then the fourth argument is evaluated as a TH1 expression.

So, you see, even though the example above spans five lines, it is really just a single command.

Summary of Core TH1 Commands

The original Tcl language after when TH1 is modeled has a very rich repertoire of commands. TH1, as it is designed to be minimalist and embedded has a greatly reduced command set. The following bullets summarize the commands available in TH1:

  • array exists VARNAME
  • array names VARNAME
  • break
  • catch SCRIPT ?VARIABLE?
  • continue
  • error ?STRING?
  • expr EXPR
  • for INIT-SCRIPT TEST-EXPR NEXT-SCRIPT BODY-SCRIPT
  • if EXPR SCRIPT (elseif EXPR SCRIPT)* ?else SCRIPT?
  • info commands
  • info exists VARNAME
  • info vars
  • lindex LIST INDEX
  • list ARG ...
  • llength LIST
  • lsearch LIST STRING
  • proc NAME ARG-LIST BODY-SCRIPT
  • rename OLD NEW
  • return ?-code CODE? ?VALUE?
  • set VARNAME VALUE
  • string compare STR1 STR2
  • string first NEEDLE HAYSTACK ?START-INDEX?
  • string is CLASS STRING
  • string last NEEDLE HAYSTACK ?START-INDEX?
  • string length STRING
  • string range STRING FIRST LAST
  • string repeat STRING COUNT
  • unset VARNAME
  • uplevel ?LEVEL? SCRIPT
  • upvar ?FRAME? OTHERVAR MYVAR ?OTHERVAR MYVAR?

All of the above commands work as in the original Tcl. Refer to the Tcl documentation for details.

Summary of Core TH1 Variables

  • tcl_platform(engine) -- This will always have the value "TH1".
  • tcl_platform(platform) -- This will have the value "windows" or "unix".
  • th_stack_trace -- This will contain error stack information.

TH1 Extended Commands

There are many new commands added to TH1 and used to access the special features of Fossil. The following is a summary of the extended commands:

  • anoncap
  • anycap
  • artifact
  • checkout
  • combobox
  • date
  • decorate
  • dir
  • enable_output
  • encode64
  • getParameter
  • glob_match
  • globalState
  • hascap
  • hasfeature
  • html
  • htmlize
  • http
  • httpize
  • insertCsrf
  • linecount
  • markdown
  • puts
  • query
  • randhex
  • redirect
  • regexp
  • reinitialize
  • render
  • repository
  • searchable
  • setParameter
  • setting
  • stime
  • styleHeader
  • styleFooter
  • tclEval
  • tclExpr
  • tclInvoke
  • tclIsSafe
  • tclMakeSafe
  • tclReady
  • trace
  • unversioned content
  • unversioned list
  • utime
  • verifyCsrf
  • wiki

Each of the commands above is documented by a block comment above their implementation in the th_main.c or th_tcl.c source files.

All commands starting with "tcl", with the exception of "tclReady", require the Tcl integration subsystem be included at compile-time. Additionally, the "tcl" repository setting must be enabled at runtime in order to successfully make use of these commands.

TH1 anoncap Command

  • anoncap STRING...

Returns true if the anonymous user has all of the capabilities listed in STRING.

TH1 anycap Command

  • anycap STRING

Returns true if the current user user has any one of the capabilities listed in STRING.

TH1 artifact Command

  • artifact ID ?FILENAME?

Attempts to locate the specified artifact and return its contents. An error is generated if the repository is not open or the artifact cannot be found.

TH1 checkout Command

  • checkout ?BOOLEAN?

Return the fully qualified directory name of the current checkout or an empty string if it is not available. Optionally, it will attempt to find the current checkout, opening the configuration ("user") database and the repository as necessary, if the boolean argument is non-zero.

TH1 combobox Command

  • combobox NAME TEXT-LIST NUMLINES

Generates and emits an HTML combobox. NAME is both the name of the CGI parameter and the name of a variable that contains the currently selected value. TEXT-LIST is a list of possible values for the combobox. NUMLINES is 1 for a true combobox. If NUMLINES is greater than one then the display is a listbox with the number of lines given.

TH1 date Command

  • date ?-local?

Return a strings which is the current time and date. If the -local option is used, the date appears using localtime instead of UTC.

TH1 decorate Command

  • decorate STRING

Renders STRING as wiki content; however, only links are handled. No other markup is processed.

TH1 dir Command

  • dir CHECKIN ?GLOB? ?DETAILS?

Returns a list containing all files in CHECKIN. If GLOB is given only the files matching the pattern GLOB within CHECKIN will be returned. If DETAILS is non-zero, the result will be a list-of-lists, with each element containing at least three elements: the file name, the file size (in bytes), and the file last modification time (relative to the time zone configured for the repository).

TH1 enable_output Command

  • enable_output BOOLEAN

Enable or disable sending output when the combobox, puts, or wiki commands are used.

TH1 encode64 Command

  • encode64 STRING

Encode the specified string using Base64 and return the result.

TH1 getParameter Command

  • getParameter NAME ?DEFAULT?

Returns the value of the specified query parameter or the specified default value when there is no matching query parameter.

TH1 glob_match Command

  • glob_match ?-one? ?--? patternList string

Checks the string against the specified glob pattern -OR- list of glob patterns and returns non-zero if there is a match.

TH1 globalState Command

  • globalState NAME ?DEFAULT?

Returns a string containing the value of the specified global state variable -OR- the specified default value. The supported items are:

  1. checkout -- Active local checkout directory, if any.
  2. configuration -- Active configuration database file name, if any.
  3. executable -- Fully qualified executable file name.
  4. flags -- TH1 initialization flags.
  5. log -- Error log file name, if any.
  6. repository -- Active local repository file name, if any.
  7. top -- Base path for the active server instance, if applicable.
  8. user -- Active user name, if any.
  9. vfs -- SQLite VFS in use, if overridden.

Attempts to query for unsupported global state variables will result in a script error. Additional global state variables may be exposed in the future.

TH1 hascap Command

  • hascap STRING...

Returns true if the current user has all of the capabilities listed in STRING.

TH1 hasfeature Command

  • hasfeature STRING

Returns true if the binary has the given compile-time feature enabled. The possible features are:

  1. ssl -- Support for the HTTPS transport.
  2. legacyMvRm -- Support for legacy mv/rm command behavior.
  3. execRelPaths -- Use relative paths with external diff/gdiff.
  4. th1Docs -- Support for TH1 in embedded documentation.
  5. th1Hooks -- Support for TH1 command and web page hooks.
  6. tcl -- Support for Tcl integration.
  7. useTclStubs -- Tcl stubs enabled in the Tcl headers.
  8. tclStubs -- Uses Tcl stubs (i.e. linking with stubs library).
  9. tclPrivateStubs -- Uses Tcl private stubs (i.e. header-only).
  10. json -- Support for the JSON APIs.
  11. markdown -- Support for Markdown documentation format.
  12. unicodeCmdLine -- The command line arguments are Unicode.
  13. dynamicBuild -- Dynamically linked to libraries.
  14. see -- Uses the SQLite Encryption Extension.

Specifying an unknown feature will return a value of false, it will not raise a script error.

TH1 html Command

  • html STRING

Outputs the STRING escaped for HTML.

TH1 htmlize Command

  • htmlize STRING

Escape all characters of STRING which have special meaning in HTML. Returns the escaped string.

TH1 http Command

  • http ?-asynchronous? ?--? url ?payload?

Performs an HTTP or HTTPS request for the specified URL. If a payload is present, it will be interpreted as text/plain and the POST method will be used; otherwise, the GET method will be used. Upon success, if the -asynchronous option is used, an empty string is returned as the result; otherwise, the response from the server is returned as the result. Synchronous requests are not currently implemented.

TH1 httpize Command

  • httpize STRING

Escape all characters of STRING which have special meaning in URI components. Returns the escaped string.

TH1 insertCsrf Command

  • insertCsrf

While rendering a form, call this command to add the Anti-CSRF token as a hidden element of the form.

TH1 linecount Command

  • linecount STRING MAX MIN

Returns one more than the number of n characters in STRING. But never returns less than MIN or more than MAX.

TH1 markdown Command

  • markdown STRING

Renders the input string as markdown. The result is a two-element list. The first element contains the body, rendered as HTML. The second element is the text-only title string.

TH1 puts Command

  • puts STRING

Outputs the STRING unchanged.

TH1 query Command

  • query ?-nocomplain? SQL CODE

Runs the SQL query given by the SQL argument. For each row in the result set, run CODE.

In SQL, parameters such as $var are filled in using the value of variable "var". Result values are stored in variables with the column name prior to each invocation of CODE.

TH1 randhex Command

  • randhex N

Returns a string of N*2 random hexadecimal digits with N<50. If N is omitted, use a value of 10.

TH1 redirect Command

  • redirect URL ?withMethod?

Issues an HTTP redirect to the specified URL and then exits the process. By default, an HTTP status code of 302 is used. If the optional withMethod argument is present and non-zero, an HTTP status code of 307 is used, which should force the user agent to preserve the original method for the request (e.g. GET, POST) instead of (possibly) forcing the user agent to change the method to GET.

TH1 regexp Command

  • regexp ?-nocase? ?--? exp string

Checks the string against the specified regular expression and returns non-zero if it matches. If the regular expression is invalid or cannot be compiled, an error will be generated.

TH1 reinitialize Command

  • reinitialize ?FLAGS?

Reinitializes the TH1 interpreter using the specified flags.

TH1 render Command

  • render STRING

Renders the TH1 template and writes the results.

TH1 repository Command

  • repository ?BOOLEAN?

Returns the fully qualified file name of the open repository or an empty string if one is not currently open. Optionally, it will attempt to open the repository if the boolean argument is non-zero.

TH1 searchable Command

  • searchable STRING...

Return true if searching in any of the document classes identified by STRING is enabled for the repository and user has the necessary capabilities to perform the search. The possible document classes are:

  1. c -- Check-in comments
  2. d -- Embedded documentation
  3. t -- Tickets
  4. w -- Wiki

To be clear, only one of the document classes identified by each STRING needs to be searchable in order for that argument to be true. But all arguments must be true for this routine to return true. Hence, to see if ALL document classes are searchable:

    if {[searchable c d t w]} {...}

But to see if ANY document class is searchable:

    if {[searchable cdtw]} {...}

This command is useful for enabling or disabling a "Search" entry on the menu bar.

TH1 setParameter Command

  • setParameter NAME VALUE

Sets the value of the specified query parameter.

TH1 setting Command

  • setting name

Gets and returns the value of the specified setting.

TH1 stime Command

  • stime

Returns the number of microseconds of CPU time consumed by the current process in system space.

TH1 styleHeader Command

  • styleHeader TITLE

Render the configured style header.

TH1 styleFooter Command

  • styleFooter

Render the configured style footer.

TH1 tclEval Command

This command requires the Tcl integration feature.

  • tclEval arg ?arg ...?

Evaluates the Tcl script and returns its result verbatim. If a Tcl script error is generated, it will be transformed into a TH1 script error. The Tcl interpreter will be created automatically if it has not been already.

TH1 tclExpr Command

This command requires the Tcl integration feature.

  • tclExpr arg ?arg ...?

Evaluates the Tcl expression and returns its result verbatim. If a Tcl script error is generated, it will be transformed into a TH1 script error. The Tcl interpreter will be created automatically if it has not been already.

TH1 tclInvoke Command

This command requires the Tcl integration feature.

  • tclInvoke command ?arg ...?

Invokes the Tcl command using the supplied arguments. No additional substitutions are performed on the arguments. The Tcl interpreter will be created automatically if it has not been already.

TH1 tclIsSafe Command

This command requires the Tcl integration feature.

  • tclIsSafe

Returns non-zero if the Tcl interpreter is "safe". The Tcl interpreter will be created automatically if it has not been already.

TH1 tclMakeSafe Command

This command requires the Tcl integration feature.

  • tclMakeSafe

Forces the Tcl interpreter into "safe" mode by removing all "unsafe" commands and variables. This operation cannot be undone. The Tcl interpreter will remain "safe" until the process terminates. The Tcl interpreter will be created automatically if it has not been already.

TH1 tclReady Command

  • tclReady

Returns true if the binary has the Tcl integration feature enabled and it is currently available for use by TH1 scripts.

TH1 trace Command

  • trace STRING

Generates a TH1 trace message if TH1 tracing is enabled.

TH1 unversioned content Command

  • unversioned content FILENAME

Attempts to locate the specified unversioned file and return its contents. An error is generated if the repository is not open or the unversioned file cannot be found.

TH1 unversioned list Command

  • unversioned list

Returns a list of the names of all unversioned files held in the local repository. An error is generated if the repository is not open.

TH1 utime Command

  • utime

Returns the number of microseconds of CPU time consumed by the current process in user space.

TH1 verifyCsrf Command

  • verifyCsrf

Before using the results of a form, first call this command to verify that this Anti-CSRF token is present and is valid. If the Anti-CSRF token is missing or is incorrect, that indicates a cross-site scripting attack. If the event of an attack is detected, an error message is generated and all further processing is aborted.

TH1 wiki Command

  • wiki STRING

Renders STRING as wiki content.

Tcl Integration Commands

When the Tcl integration subsystem is enabled, several commands are added to the Tcl interpreter. They are used to allow Tcl scripts access to the Fossil functionality provided via TH1. The following is a summary of the Tcl commands:

  • th1Eval
  • th1Expr

Tcl th1Eval Command

This command requires the Tcl integration feature.

  • th1Eval arg

Evaluates the TH1 script and returns its result verbatim. If a TH1 script error is generated, it will be transformed into a Tcl script error.

Tcl th1Expr Command

This command requires the Tcl integration feature.

  • th1Expr arg

Evaluates the TH1 expression and returns its result verbatim. If a TH1 script error is generated, it will be transformed into a Tcl script error.