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Wiki page [Nexys-2 Expansion Port] by kc5tja 2017-08-21 07:14:56.
D 2017-08-21T07:14:56.047
L Nexys-2\sExpansion\sPort
N text/x-markdown
P a320a6c3825f71c21e7e64df1c910ca482b6745e
U kc5tja
W 2634
# Nexys-2 Expansion Port

The Nexys-2 FPGA board has no on-board static RAM.
Its only source of RAM is either the on-chip block RAM, or the pseudo-SDRAM chip.
To gain access to legitimate static RAM,
I must use my icoBoard Gamma as a RAM expansion card.
This requires running 36 wires from the Nexys-2 to the icoBoard Gamma.

I will use three PMOD ports bonded together to make a single "expansion port."
This page documents the current "standard" for this interconnect.
I don't expect to have to advance the standard too far;
if/when the Kestrel 3 becomes available,
I expect a very different expansion architecture to become more prominent.

## Pin Descriptions

The "pin-out" below is preliminary.

|Pins |Signal |Driver|ALE|Purpose|
|:---:|:-----:|:----:|:-:|:------|
|1-16 |A1-A16 |Master| 1 |Address bits A1-A16.|
|     |D0-D15 |either| 0 |Data bits D0-D15.|
|17-18|A17-A18|Master| 1 |Address bits A17-A18.|
|     |WS1-WS0|Master| 0 |Write Strobes.|
|19   |A19    |Master| 1 |Address bit A19.|
|     |ACK    |Slave | 0 |Asserted by the slave to indicate data on D0-D15 is valid.|
|20-23|A20-A23|Master| 1 |Address bits A20-A23.|
|     |1      |Master| 0 |Unassigned.|
|24   |ALE    |Master|---|Address Latch Enable.|

The ALE signal can double as a clock, of sorts; when high, all I/Os are driven by the master and presents the top-most 23 bits of a 24-bit address.  This allows the expansion port to address 16MB of memory.  When ALE is low, however, the I/Os may change directions and be driven by the slave (e.g., as with a read operation).

The ALE frequency cannot exceed 25MHz; however, in practice, it will likely run much slower than this.  (E.g., 12.5MHz or 6.25MHz.)

The following table describes how one can tell a read from a write transaction:

|WS1|WS0|Operation|
|:-:|:-:|:-------:|
| 0 | 0 |Read data on D0-D15|
| 0 | 1 |Write data D0-D7 only|
| 1 | 0 |Write data D8-D15 only|
| 1 | 1 |Write data D0-D15|

## Unassigned Signals

All unassigned signals **must** be driven by the master with a logic `1`.
Unassigned signals **must** be *ignored* by the attached slave.

Revisions of this standard can be made
in a way that preserves legacy hardware compatibility.
Any of the unassigned signals can become *inputs* at a later time
with the help of a pull-up resistor on the master side of the circuit.

New hardware can be made compatible with legacy expansion ports
by using *series resistors*.
If the slave expects to be able to drive a currently undefined signal,
it **must** do so through a resistor so as to not dead-short a legacy expansion port pin.

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